Functional studies focus both on testing the functional parameters of particular taxa, such as the aquatic capabilities of Spinosaurus, to large-scale theoretical considerations of how vertebrate function evolves. “Macromodules” identify major functional partitioning (or sequestration) of the original unified (integrated) craniate functional design. Once sequestered, the research is demonstrating, macromodules are rarely, if ever, reversed in the course of vertebrate evolution.